As China increases its military pressure on Taiwan, Nobuo Kishi said Japan expects a "peaceful resolution of cross-strait issues" through dialogue.
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The move seeking a rise in the budget comes as neighboring countries are increasing their own defense spending.
The forces of the three countries will engage in urban warfare drills followed by amphibious operation exercises in southwestern Japan.
A proposal by a panel within the governing party also asks for legal changes to be considered that would allow use of weapons to deal with incidents that fall short of a military attack.
An author of the report warned that moves by Chinese government vessels against Japanese fishing boats near the disputed islands will likely become even more blatant.
"This interpretation will not allow others to find weaknesses in Japan's law and will work as a deterrent," former Defense Minister Itsunori Onodera said.
Government officials had said earlier Japan's coast guard is only allowed to fire weapons directly at foreign vessels in cases of self-defense and emergency escape.
The draft budget, up 0.5% from the previous year, includes funding to introduce new standoff missiles capable of attacking enemy vessels from outside their firing range.
The proposed deployment could allow China and Russia to justify further military expansion, experts say.
Defense Minister Nobuo Kishi also announced that Japan plans to develop standoff missiles that can be launched at targets from outside the range of enemy missiles.