Europe is facing a major social test ahead of winter, juggling rising discontent — fueled by soaring energy prices — and pressure to meet climate goals as the Ukraine conflict drags on.

British grassroots group "Don't Pay U.K." is calling for people to boycott energy bills from Oct. 1, while the trade union-backed "Enough is Enough" campaign kicked off a series of rallies and actions in mid-August calling for pay rises, rent caps, cheaper energy and food, and taxes on the rich.

A worsening cost-of-living crisis across Europe has already seen workers in France, Spain and Belgium go out on strike in the public transport, health and aviation sectors, pushing for higher wages to help them cope with rocketing inflation.