The blue arrows on the map splay out like uncooked spaghetti tossed into a pot as geophysicist Jonathan Bedford presses play.

Ten years after the March 11, 2011, Great East Japan Earthquake — which upended long-held views about where megaquakes were likely to strike — scientists like Bedford, a researcher with the GFZ German Research Center for Geosciences in Potsdam, are developing new tools to better understand the threat, while others are digging deep into the past in a search for geological clues.

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