But as 2021 nears, things look a lot better than they did just a few months ago. We now have at least five reasons to celebrate the New Year.
For Mark Leonard's latest contributions to The Japan Times, see below:
Trump may just be the accidental father of European sovereignty
If Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu fails to develop a viable Palestinian state, his escape from history could prove very short-lived.
The COVID-19 crisis has created an opening for stronger collective European action.
Three developments have led the EU to abandon its goal of closer economic ties.
Negotiations over the future of U.K.-EU relations will divide Europeans and offer fodder to Euroskeptics
Europeans must heed Mike Pence's dark warnings to achieve Joe Biden's bright vision
Both countries are becoming more alike — particularly in their belief that there can be only one winner.
Under U.S. President Donald Trump, however, a sophisticated set of tools known as secondary sanctions has become a bludgeon with which to threaten allies.
Europeans can no longer assume that their interests are synonymous with those of the U.S.