Online piracy of Japanese entertainment, including manga, anime, and video games, caused losses of around ¥2 trillion ($15 billion) in 2021, marking a five-fold increase from 2019, according to a study by a Tokyo-based watchdog.

The Content Overseas Distribution Association believes the sharp rise was attributable to people spending more time indoors on entertainment content during the coronavirus pandemic, as well as greater uptake of streaming services.

The survey, released Friday, covered four entertainment categories of video, published content, video games and music. Based on market surveys and consumer questionnaires, the association estimated that the losses to rights holders amounted to between ¥1.9 trillion and ¥2.2 trillion.