Japanese women may have doubled their income over the past 20 years, but they still earn only a quarter of what men are paid, according to government data.

The average female monthly income was ¥83,896 ($630) per month in February, according to a survey of households by the Statistics Bureau of Japan released this month. While that’s nearly twice what they were earning per month in 2000, that’s far less than the average ¥345,645 salary for male workers, it showed.

Japan has championed working women as the answer to the country’s shrinking population and lackluster economy, but around 70% of female workers are employed in part-time or nonpermanent jobs, which often mean lower pay and fewer opportunities for advancement. Economic uncertainties have meant more companies are shifting away from lifetime employment practices, but 63% of male workers are still employed in full-time positions.

Japan ranked 116th out of 146 countries in the World Economic Forum’s Global Gender Gap report in 2022, the only Group of Seven country failing to make the top 100. Its position is particularly low in the economic participation and opportunity category due to wage inequality and the absence of women in senior positions such as in company management.