The House of Representatives on Tuesday approved a record ¥114.38 trillion budget for fiscal 2023, making its enactment certain before the new fiscal year starts in April as the nation faces a cost of living crisis and security threats from its neighbors.

The budget includes ¥6.82 trillion in defense spending to bolster the nation's defenses against threats posed by China, North Korea and Russia and ¥36.89 trillion in social security costs, the largest such outlay ever, amid the rapid graying of Japan's population.

Following approval by the Lower House, the House of Councilors will start its deliberations, but the upper chamber's approval is not a must. The budget automatically takes effect 30 days after it is sent to the Upper House.