The news that a foreign substance — thought to be metal fragments — has been discovered in dozens of vials of Moderna Inc.’s COVID-19 vaccine distributed in Japan could shake people’s faith in the vaccine, but manufacturers and experts have downplayed safety risks and their impact on human health.

Complicating the matter further, the weekend brought news of more tainted vaccines in Okinawa and Gunma prefectures and the deaths of two men in their 30s three days after they received shots from affected batches. Here is a rundown of the current situation.

What has been the impact of the discovery of the foreign substances?