Fumikazu Matsuzaki saw his business take a one-two punch from the coronavirus pandemic.

His 40-year career in making hanko (personal stamps) was suddenly put in peril when the traditional document formalization procedure became the target of criticism for its inherent inefficiencies, particularly as more people were forced to work remotely.

Many in Japan called for the long-held practice of authorizing and formalizing documents via red stamped seals to be abolished.