SEOUL/MONTREAL – When Pakistan closed its airspace during a conflict with India in February, Malaysia Airlines was not one of the carriers left scrambling to reroute flights because it had already done so two weeks earlier, the carrier’s chief executive said.
Nearly five years after Malaysia Airlines Flight MH17 was shot down by a missile over Ukraine, killing all 298 people on board, carriers like Malaysia Airlines are increasingly taking steps to uncover any threats to their planes.
But concerns persist over governments’ inadequate sharing of intelligence and a reluctance by countries involved in conflict to divulge information or sacrifice overflight fees by shutting their skies, safety experts said.
“The wound is still here in the whole organization, and we take safety very seriously,” Malaysia Airlines’ chief executive, Izham Ismail, said on the sidelines of an International Air Transport Association conference in Seoul.
Ukraine on Tuesday accused Russia of doing nothing to prevent what it called pro-Moscow separatists’ “acts of terrorism” in eastern Ukraine, including the downing of MH17 on July 17, 2014.
Deputy Foreign Minister Olena Zerkal made the claim before judges at the International Court of Justice in The Hague on the second day of arguments in a case brought by Kiev against Moscow. On Monday, Russia argued that Ukraine had failed to present any new evidence against it and called on the court to dismiss the case.
Ukraine launched the case against Russia in 2017 under international laws on the financing of terrorism. It is seeking damages for attacks against civilians it says the separatists have carried out in eastern Ukraine. It says Moscow supplied the BUK surface-to-air missile system used to shoot down MH17.
In the aftermath of the shooting down of MH17, the aviation industry backed the creation by a U.N. agency of a conflict zone website as a one-stop repository for route planning.
But when the site was later closed after complaints from some countries over information-sharing, airlines turned elsewhere for advice.
“For the big 50 airlines, they have the resources to dedicate a security department to the job,” said Mark Zee, the founder of OPSGROUP, which launched the free website Safe Airspace to provide guidance after the downing of MH17. “For everyone else — and that is thousands of operators — I can tell you that many of them have a really hard time making a decent risk assessment. I see it in the emails we get every day.”
Airlines are spending millions of dollars a year on extra fuel flying roundabout routes in the Middle East and Africa to avoid conflict zones.
And carriers still see routes above war-torn countries differently, just like before MH17, when British Airways and Air France avoided eastern Ukraine, but Lufthansa and Singapore Airlines flew over it.
“This is where we need better information,” said IATA’s senior vice president for safety and flight operations, Gilberto Lopez-Meyer, in Seoul.
Qatar Airways, for one, recently returned to flying over Syria as part of its efforts to grapple with a two-year Persian Gulf dispute that has blocked it from using the airspace of many of its neighbors. CEO Akbar al-Baker said the airline would not fly anywhere that is not safe.
The United States and other countries ban their airlines from flying over Syrian airspace at any altitude due to safety risks, according to a European Union Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) website on conflict zones that was set up after MH17.
Yet the resources that are available to airlines often communicate changing threat levels too slowly and informally to be of use, according to the Dutch Safety Board, which led the MH17 investigation and released post-crash recommendations in February this year.
While the Netherlands shares confidential information on threats to its own carriers on a formal basis, other countries remain reluctant to do so.
The site set up after MH17 by the U.N.’s International Civil Aviation Organization closed after “states objected to anybody but themselves publishing information about hazards in their airspace,” said a source involved with the creation of the site who declined to be identified because of the sensitivity of the matter.
Instead, the use of commercial services like OPSGROUP grew among airlines polled after MH17, the Dutch Safety Board said.
“I think after MH17 people became more aware of the problem. They seek information,” said Mohammed Aziz, a former Lebanese air accident investigator who is now a consultant with Aviation Strategies International.
“The problem is before they weren’t seeking information. They were waiting for information to come their way.”
Montreal-based ICAO has also called for air traffic service authorities to report conflict zone hazards in notices to pilots. But these new requirements do not take effect until November 2020 and still put the onus on countries to share information.
“Rules alone do not change the behavior of states,” said Jeff Poole, director general of the Civil Air Services Navigation Organization.
“However, we see that more and more states take the correct responsibility.”