Nine of Japan's 81 medical schools have manipulated their entrance exams to favor men and relatives of alumni, the education ministry said Friday in a final report on its probe into university admission processes.

The nine had already admitted to misconduct since the ministry launched its probe in August, prompted by the revelation that Tokyo Medical University had discriminated against women and those who had already failed exams.

"It is deeply disappointing. I want the universities to make immediate and courteous responses regarding the situation of the applicants," said education minister Masahiko Shibayama. The screening process for the next academic year has already begun.