PORT MORESBY – Leaders from 21 Asia-Pacific nations failed Sunday to bridge gaping divisions at a summit overshadowed by a war of words over the U.S. and China as they vie for influence in the region.
For the first time in the history of the APEC grouping, leaders were unable to agree on a formal written declaration amid sharp differences over trade policy during the summit.
“The leaders agreed that instead of a traditional leaders’ declaration, they would leave it to the hands of PNG as the chair to issue a chair statement on behalf of all the members,” said Zhang Xiaolong, a spokesman from the Chinese Foreign Ministry.
Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau admitted there were “different visions on particular elements with regard to trade that prevented full consensus on a communique document.”
Papua New Guinea will release the formal closing statement in the coming days, Prime Minister Peter O’Neill said. In his closing comments to the forum, O’Neill also said the group was trying to ensure “free and open” trade by 2020.
U.S. Vice President Mike Pence, as he left the Papua New Guinea capital of Port Moresby, listed Washington’s differences with Beijing, a day after he directly criticized its “Belt and Road” infrastructure program.
“They begin with trade practices, with tariffs and quotas, forced technology transfers, the theft of intellectual property. It goes beyond that to freedom of navigation in the seas, concerns about human rights,” Pence told reporters travelling with him.
Differences over trade had prompted Chinese officials to “barge” into the office of Papua New Guinea’s foreign minister on Saturday.
Police were called after the delegates “tried to barge in” to Rimbink Pato’s Port Moresby office, in an eleventh-hour bid to influence a summit draft communique, three sources with knowledge of the situation said. The Chinese were denied entry.
“Police were posted outside the minister’s office after they tried to barge in,” one source privy to summit negotiations said on condition of anonymity.
Pato had refused to meet with the delegates, according to a source, who said: “It’s not appropriate for the minister to negotiate solo with the Chinese. The Chinese negotiating officials know this.”
The minister himself sought to downplay the incident, saying: “There wasn’t an issue.”
Asked about the incident, Chinese Foreign Ministry official Zhang Xiaolong told reporters: “It’s not true. It’s simply not true.”
This is not the first time Chinese officials have been involved in a tense incident at a regional meeting.
At the Pacific Islands Forum in September, Nauru’s president demanded China apologize after its delegation walked out of a meeting when the host refused to let an envoy speak until island leaders had finished.
“They’re not our friends. They just need us for their own purposes,” President Baron Waqa said at the time.
The weekend’s annual gathering, held for the first time in Papua New Guinea, was overshadowed by speeches from Chinese President Xi Jinping and Pence, which appeared to represent competing bids for regional leadership.
Pence warned smaller countries not to be seduced by China’s massive “Belt and Road” program, which sees Beijing offer money to poorer countries for construction and development projects.
The “opaque” loans come with strings attached and build up “staggering debt,” Pence charged, mocking the initiative as a “constricting belt” and a “one-way road.”
He urged nations instead to stick with the United States, which doesn’t “drown our partners in a sea of debt” or “coerce, corrupt or compromise your independence.”
In a speech to business leaders just minutes before Pence, Xi insisted the initiative was not a “trap” and there was no “hidden agenda” — amid criticism that it amounts to “checkbook diplomacy” in the region.
Xi also lashed out at “America First” trade protectionism, saying it was a “short-sighted approach” that was “doomed to failure.”
The feisty barbs on a gleaming white cruise ship moored in Port Moresby set the scene for a potentially fiery meeting between Xi and U.S. President Donald Trump at the Group of 20 summit in Argentina at the end of this month.
But Xi and Pence, who both wore shiny, red shirts provided by the Pacific island did hold talks Saturday night at the leaders’ gala dinner.
Pence told reporters on Sunday: “I spoke to President Xi twice during the course of this conference. We had a candid conversation.”
He told him that the U.S. is interested in a better relationship with China “but there has to be change” in Beijing’s trade policies.
With fears that a trade war between the two rivals could cripple the Pacific Rim economy, some attendees voiced concern about the growing rivalry for influence in the region.
“Business leaders do not want to speak out, but behind the scenes here, they are talking over dinner saying ‘how has this happened?’ ” said Denis O’Brien, the billionaire chairman of Digicel.
“It’s a very forced situation, one country is trying to force all the other countries to change tariffs agreed over years,” O’Brien said.
Trump — and Russian President Vladimir Putin — both decided to skip the gathering, leaving the spotlight on Xi who arrived two days early to open a Chinese-funded school and road in Papua New Guinea’s dirt-poor capital, Port Moresby.
Xi has been the star of the show, front and center at official photos whereas Pence has kept a lower profile, only deciding at the last minute to stay overnight in Port Moresby — shelving original plans to fly in and out from Cairns in Australia.
As if to counter Chinese largesse, the U.S., Australia, New Zealand and Japan on Sunday announced a project to boost electricity capacity in Papua New Guinea.
The project aims to raise the percentage of the Papua New Guinea population with access to electricity from 13 percent to 70 percent.
And as the U.S. and China vie for influence in the region, the statement dangled the prospect of similar projects for countries that “support principles and values which help maintain and promote a free, open, prosperous and rules-based region.”
With the official business of the summit relatively low-key, much of the focus has been on the unlikely venue of Port Moresby, which hosted its first international event of this scale.
The city was on lockdown, with hundreds of police and military patrolling the streets of the notoriously crime-ridden capital.
Warships were stationed just off the coast to provide security for the leaders, and delegates and media have been housed in enormous cruise ships due to a dearth of hotel rooms.