Almost two years into the COVID-19 pandemic, about 630 movie theaters remain closed across North America. And many may never reopen.

The casualties stretch across the continent, afflicting big chains like AMC Entertainment Holdings Inc. and mom-and-pop outfits. They’re shut in small towns, like Devils Lake, North Dakota, and in the heart of Hollywood, where plywood has been nailed over the windows of Los Angeles’ iconic Cinerama Dome.

COVID-19 has accelerated trends that preceded the pandemic, with major films today becoming available online far sooner than in the past and moviegoing already on the decline. While Americans are again jamming football stadiums and theme parks, theater attendance is recovering only slowly from last year’s industrywide shutdown.