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Kōchi ni guraundo o nanshū mo hashirasareta-n da.

(The coach made us run around the grounds many times.)

 

Situation 1: Ms. Gray and Mr. Mita are talking about high school.

グレイ:三田さんは高校生の時、野球をしていたの?

三田:うん。でも、野球部のコーチにグラウンドを何周も走らされたんだ。それが嫌で、やめた。

Gurei: Mita-san wa kōkōsei no toki, yakyū o shite-ita no?

Mita: Un. Demo, yakyū-bu no kōchi ni guraundo o nanshū mo hashirasareta-n da. Sore ga iya de, yameta.

Gray: Mr. Mita, when you were a high school student, you played baseball?

Mita: Yeah. But, the baseball club’s coach made us run around the grounds many times. I hated it, so I quit.

 

The causative passive form of a verb, like 走(はし)らされる in Situation 1, is used when the speaker has been ordered to do something and is somewhat reluctant. It has the meaning of “I was forced to.”

To create the causative passive with a Group 1 “う” verb, change the final kana to an “a” and attach される: 休(やす)む (to rest) becomes 休まされる (I am forced to rest). An exception comes when the final kana is す, however, and in this case you change the final kana to a “sa” and attach せられる: 話(はな)す (to talk) becomes 話させられる (to be made to talk). With a Group 2 “る” verb, replace the final る with させられる: 食(た)べる (to eat) becomes 食べさせられる (to be forced to eat). (Note that 走る, used in Situation 1, is actually a Group 1 “う” verb that just happens to end in る, therefore it plays by the rules accorded to Group 1 verbs.) Finally, the irregular Group 3 verbs する (to do) and 来(く)る (to come) become させられる (to have been made to do) and 来(こ)させられる (to have been made to come), respectively.

The typical structure for causative passive form when the verb is a transitive one (TV) is Xが/はYにZをTV:

ジョージは課長(かちょう)に書類(しょるい)を作(つく)らされた。(George was forced to make the documents by his boss.)

When the verb is intransitive (IV), the structure is Xが/はYにIV:

ジョージは課長に会社(かいしゃ)に来させられた。(George was made to come to the office by his boss.)

The subject in a causative passive sentence is often omitted, so be careful as to who performed the action.

 

Situation 2: Mr. Shiba comes back from the eye doctor.

夫:目医者で、1時間も待たされたよ。

妻:ああ、あそこは患者さんが多いのよ。評判がいいから。

Otto: Meisha de, ichi-jikan mo matasareta yo.

Tsuma: Aa, asoko wa kanja-san ga ōi no yo. Hyōban ga ii kara.

Husband: I had to wait an hour at the eye doctor.

Wife: Ah, there are many patients there. Because she has a good reputation.

The causative passive form also expresses the idea that someone has been made to act against their own will or interests:

店員(てんいん)に勧(すす)められて、おみやげをたくさん買(か)わされてしまった。(I totally ended up buying a ton of souvenirs because the shopkeeper persuaded me to.)

 

Bonus Dialogue: Continued from Situation 1.

三田(みた):ぼくは子(こ)どものころは、体(からだ)が弱(よわ)かったんだ。母(はは)に「あなたにはずいぶん心配(しんぱい)させられた」って、よく言(い)われているよ。

田町(たまち):へえ、そうだったの。今(いま)では考(かんが)えられないけど。

三田:きらいな野菜(やさい)や肉(にく)を食べさせられたり、牛乳(ぎゅうにゅう)をたくさん飲(の)まされたりしたよ。

グレイ:お母(かあ)さんは三田さんを丈夫(じょうぶ)な子どもに育(そだ)てようとしたのよ。

三田:でも、ピアノを習(なら)わされたときは、すぐにやめちゃったよ。

グレイ:その子に向(む)かないものを無理(むり)にさせても、うまくいかないものね。

三田:そんなわけで、ぼくは勉強(べんきょう)は無理にさせられなかったんだ。だから、集中力(しゅうちゅうりょく)がなくて、仕事(しごと)もいまいちで…。

田町:そんなの、言い訳(いいわけ)にならないでしょ。仕事はちゃんとやらなくちゃ。

三田:わかった…。

Mita: When I was a child, my body was weak. My mother is often saying, “You made me worry quite a lot.”

Tamachi: Oh, is that so? I can’t imagine it now.

Mita: I was forced to eat vegetables and meat that I didn’t like, and I was forced to drink a lot of milk.

Gray: Your mother tried to raise you to be a healthy child, Mita.

Mita: But when I was forced to learn piano, I quit right away.

Gray: It doesn’t work when you force a child to do something not suited to them.

Mita: It’s for that reason, I wasn’t forced to study. Therefore, I lack concentration and my work is not good enough….

Tamachi: That’s no excuse. We have to do our work properly.

Mita: I know….

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