As we reach the second anniversary of Russia’s full-scale invasion of Ukraine, questions are being raised over the long-term commitment of Kyiv’s allies to its full victory and the liberation of all occupied territories.

With political games continuing in Washington, and European countries struggling to plug the gap caused by U.S. inaction, Russia has entrenched itself on the battlefield as it has perpetuated atrocity after atrocity. The war has seemingly no end in sight and there is a palpable sense of frustration among Ukrainians that they are not being provided with the equipment and ammunition they need to banish Russia from their territory for good, even as soldiers continue to give their lives on the front line.

Surely, then, the news from the Japan-Ukraine Conference for Promotion of Economic Growth and Reconstruction on Monday will have been welcome in Kyiv. In a demonstration of long-term commitment stretching beyond the symbolic, the conference brought pledges for grant-based assistance with landmine clearance, the opening of a JETRO trade office in Kyiv, the easing of travel restrictions, the start of negotiations on a bilateral investment treaty and more than 50 memoranda pledging cooperation from the Japanese private sector. This comes in addition to around $10 billion of aid already pledged and a further $1.35 billion fund to encourage private sector investment in Ukraine.