Science and technology have traditionally been regarded as among the elements that constitute national power, and states often express their determination to boost those fields at home and abroad.

In 2015, Chinese leader Xi Jinping launched Made in China 2025, an industrial policy aimed at making the country a manufacturing superpower by advancing military-civil fusion and upgrading industry as a whole.

The policy focuses on 10 sectors, including next-generation information technology, high-end numerical control machinery and robotics, aerospace and aviation equipment, and new materials.