While the winner seems assured, the exact outcome will determine Prime Minister Fumio Kishida's authority, the prospect of constitutional revision and the smooth working of parliament.
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Many believe success for the prime minister means either retaining or adding to the 57 seats secured by his coalition in order to quell dissent and push his policies unchallenged.
A strong showing for the LDP would allow the prime minister to put his own stamp on both the ruling party and the direction of the country.
The ruling LDP is seeking to put an emphasis on defense and diplomacy, but worries over inflation threaten to limit the party's success.
The shift comes amid growing concerns related to Moscow, Beijing and Pyongyang, but critics say it deviates from Japan’s traditional defense-oriented policy.
Kishida's first session as prime minister saw a popular stance on Ukraine and a 100% record on bills passed, but inflation and a re-emerging reputation for indecision present some worries.
Businesses are taking note of prewar efforts in Ukraine to improve its tech capabilities, and some see lessons for Japan as it attempts to level up its own digital economy.
Newly approved economic policy guidelines mention plans to bolster Japan’s military over five years without giving a specific spending target — reflecting divisions within the LDP.
In an attempt to strengthen both Japan’s deterrence capabilities and its ties with Washington, Tokyo is breaking a long-standing taboo on hiking defense spending.
Kishida has said that Japan’s strict border controls were necessary to buy time, but the government will ease restrictions from here on.