Gymnastics is one of five events that has taken place at every modern Olympic Games; the others being athletics, cycling, fencing and swimming.
Men’s artistic gymnastics have been contested in every Olympics since 1896, while the women’s program was added in 1928. Men compete in floor, vault, rings, pommel horse, horizontal bar and parallel bars. Women compete in floor, vault, beam and uneven bars. Until 2005 scoring was based on a maximum 10-point system. Since then, the scoring system has been open-ended, combining two scores based on the difficulty of the moves and the execution of them.
Certain moves or techniques have been named after the athlete that first performs them in international competition. For example, American Simone Biles has four moves named after her.
Artistic gymnastics will take place from July 24 to Aug. 3.
Starting with singles in the Olympics at the 1984 Games in Los Angeles, and the team event added in 1996 in Atlanta, rhythmic gymnastics sees women perform artistic moves while using one of four items — a ribbon, hoop, ball and a pair of clubs — to enhance their performance. Artistic gymnasts are judged both on the artistry of their movements and the difficulty of their use of the items.
In the individual event, each gymnast performs four times, using each of the four items for different performances. In the team event, five gymnasts perform twice, using a variety of the items.
The routines have minimum and maximum times and going under or over results in a deduction for each second. Other deductions can come from, for instance, the ribbon touching the mat or dropping one of the other items.
This event will take place on Aug. 6 to 8.
Trampolining was added to the Olympics in Sydney in 2000 for both men and women.
Each gymnast is required to perform two routines — one compulsory and one voluntary — with each consisting of 10 moves. In the compulsory routine, they perform eight moves that are judged on execution only and two — chosen by the athlete — that are judged on both execution and difficulty. In the voluntary routine, all 10 moves are chosen by the gymnast and are judged on both difficulty and execution. A third factor, time of flight, was added to the difficulty and execution scores in both the compulsory and voluntary programs at the 2012 London Games. The time of flight is calculated by a machine attached to a laser beam under the trampoline bed that is broken before an athlete leaves the bed on a jump and again when they return. It calculates and adds up the amount of time the athletes are off the trampoline.
Trampoline gymnastics will take place on July 30 and 31.
Venue and access information
The event will take place at the Ariake Gymnastics Center, a temporary facility that seats 12,000. It is about one minute from Ariake-tennis-no-mori Station on the Yurikamome Line and eight minutes from Kokusai-tenjijo Station on the Rinkai Line.