Japan's introduction of laws and regulations against organized crime in recent years forced the yakuza into hiding, but in the wake of this comes a new menace in the form of the tokuryū — quasi-gangsters who thrive on anonymity and a lack of structure — with even regular folks caught up in crime.

The emergence of "dark" part-time jobs that entrap young people in illegal activities, blurring the lines between the underworld and ordinary citizens, testifies to the growing presence of these quasi-gangsters in society.

Unlike the yakuza, which have a hierarchical structure and strict codes of conduct, tokuryū lack a clear organizational structure, and the geographical scope of their activities is wide, even extending overseas — the notorious Luffy crime ring that operated from the Philippines being one such example.