The key to unlocking the potential of the world’s largest archipelago is connecting more than 17,000 islands in Southeast Asia with an extensive network of airports, trains and toll roads.

That was the grand vision of Indonesian President Joko Widodo when he took office a decade ago, earmarking almost $800 billion for an infrastructure-building push that’s dwarfed the outlay of far bigger economies.

But as Jokowi — as the president is more commonly known — finishes his final term in office, maturities are piling up, debt at state-run construction companies has jumped multifold and many projects are barely utilized. Ahead of national elections next month, a sprawling airport on Indonesia’s largest island boasts an annual capacity that rivals Sydney’s Gateway — yet hosts only a few flights a week. Steep ticket prices threaten ridership of Southeast Asia’s first high-speed train, which is faster than the shinkansen but still far from full.