In the year since the start of Russia's invasion of Ukraine, the two countries with deep ties across history and between people have been pitted against each other, with a knock-on effect for Russians around the world.

While Ukrainians — forced to fight or flee — have seen an outpouring of sympathy, Russians have been tainted in the eyes of many as people belonging to a nation that sparked a violent war.

In Japan, a recent government survey showed that a record 94.7% of people “do not feel friendly” toward Russia, suggesting that many people may feel negatively toward Russians irrespective of their backgrounds.