Recent revelations that senior communications ministry officials were lavishly wined and dined by Seigo Suga, the eldest son of Prime Minister Yoshihide Suga, and other officials at a broadcasting firm have revived concerns and criticism about the ethics of bureaucrats, and questions about what constitutes a proper relationship between civil servants and those they oversee.

The National Public Service Ethics Code provides general instructions, with specific exceptions, of what is allowed and what is not in interactions with what the code terms as “interested parties.”

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