A record 128.1 billion cyberattacks against networks in Japan were detected in 2016, more than double the previous year, according to a recent survey by a public research institute.

Many of the attacks appear to have been launched from China and the United States, the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology said.

Over 50 percent of cyberattacks detected last year targeted surveillance cameras connected to the internet, home wireless routers, and other devices within the internet of things, an increase from around 26 percent in 2015.

Many of those devices are vulnerable to attacks due to deficient software security measures, it said.

The institute operates a large-scale cyberattack monitoring system. But given its limited coverage, it said it assumes a far greater number of devices were attacked.

The institute launched the survey in 2005 when the number of detected cyberattacks stood at around 310 million. The figure has surged close to 25.66 billion in 2014 and 54.51 billion in 2015.

"I hope general users of those (vulnerable) devices would understand the importance of taking measures (against cyberattacks)", said Takahiro Kasama, a senior researcher at the institute.

With more and more household appliances, cars and factory infrastructure reliant on internet connections, the Internal Affairs and Communications Ministry is considering taking measures against cyberattacks aimed at internet of things devices.