After 100 years, Britain still at war over legacy of World War I



For the people of Britain, for whom the trenches of Flanders are still an ideological battlefield, the centenary of the start of World War I has sparked an argument about patriotism, historical responsibility and the place of humor in teaching history.

Only in Britain, perhaps, would the spat pit the Conservative-led government’s education minister against a comic actor — Tony Robinson, who played the dim-witted soldier Baldrick in “Blackadder Goes Forth,” a much-loved television sitcom about the war.

In an article for the right-of-center Daily Mail newspaper, Education Secretary Michael Gove said “Blackadder” and other satires had created a public impression of the four-year war as “a misbegotten shambles, a series of catastrophic mistakes perpetrated by an out-of-touch elite.”

In four seasons of “Blackadder,” comic actor Rowan Atkinson — now famous as Mr. Bean — played a world-weary nobleman in different eras of British history, suffering the never-ending idiocy of each period’s ruling elites.

In the final season, “Blackadder Goes Forth,” he and dim servant Baldrick, played by Robinson, are soldiers in the trenches of World War I under the command of a clueless general (Stephen Fry) in what is depicted as a futile conflict. “Millions have died, but our troops have advanced no further than an asthmatic ant with some heavy shopping,” Blackadder says.

First broadcast in 1989, it is regarded by many as a classic — partly because of the poignant final scene, in which the jokes stop and the main characters charge into battle and to their likely deaths.

Yet Gove is not among its fans. In his article, he cited the show as a contributor to “misrepresentations which reflect . . . an unhappy compulsion on the part of some to denigrate virtues such as patriotism, honor and courage.”

He said for Britain, World War I was “plainly a ‘just’ war,” and one country was to blame for starting it: Germany, with its “aggressively expansionist war aims and . . . scorn for the international order.”

Gove’s remarks were criticized by Robinson, a well-known activist for the opposition Labour Party. “I think Mr. Gove has just made a very silly mistake,” Robinson told Sky News, in saying that “Blackadder” formed children’s views of the war.

He said teachers used the show simply as “another teaching tool” alongside visits to battlefields and reading war poetry.

Labour’s education spokesman, Tristram Hunt, accused Gove of a “crass” attempt to hijack “what should be a moment for national reflection and respectful debate.”

The furor is evidence of how large World War I — in which a million British soldiers died — still looms in the country’s imagination.

Generations of British schoolchildren have studied the wrenching front-line poems of Wilfred Owen and Siegfried Sassoon, and the conflict has inspired countless books, plays and movies.

Britain plans major commemorations of the war this year, from ceremonies and stage productions to the restoration of war memorials and a soccer tournament to commemorate the Christmas 1914 truce between German and British troops at the front.

Historians remain divided about who should bear the burden of responsibility for the war. It was triggered by the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austrian throne, which sparked a series of events that drove two powerful blocs into conflict: Britain, France and Russia on one side; Germany and Austria-Hungary on the other.

Cambridge University history professor Richard J. Evans accused Gove and other conservative politicians of using the war’s anniversary for political ends, to advance “a kind of Euroskeptic agenda — the idea that bashing the Hun is a good thing to do.”

“You have to be a bit more nuanced after 100 years and not just parrot British propaganda about the war,” Evans said. “It’s possible to say that extremely brave men were fighting courageously for a cause that in the end turned out to be a futile one.” He added that politicians should recognize “there are many different views of the First World War and there are many different ways you can commemorate it.”

  • Me Piper

    Eulogizing the bravery and sacrifice of its troops during the First World War
    the way British Education Minister Michael Gove does (“After 100 years,
    Britain still at war over legacy of World War I,” January 10) is neither camouflage nor excuse for the criminal incompetence of British tacticians that exacerbated their casualties in meetings with German forces during that war. The Minister was criticising the comedic Blackadder television series of thirty years ago that contributed to a popular impression that the war was “a misbegotten shambles, a series of catastrophic mistakes perpetrated by an out-of-touch elite.” But patriotism and respect for the fallen should not deter us from boldly acknowledging the truth that it was pretty much of a shambles, and there were catastrophic mistakes aplenty.

    After nearly a century of peace in Europe the British entered the war in the summer of 1914 using tactics based on their last experience of
    mass warfare – the Napoleonic Wars. It’s unbelievable but its true that
    Tommies were ordered to march across the battlefield in straight lines directly
    into the fire from Germany’s modern, water cooled, mechanical machine
    guns. You would think the British generals would learn the folly of that
    after the first day, but instead they repeated it for a couple of years, culminating in the slaughter of the First Battle of the Somme in the summer and fall of 1916, the first day of which remains the greatest single day disaster in British military history.

    The mistake the British made in the early years is that rather than using the tactics of the Napoleonic Wars they ought to have learned from the American Civil War, when massed modern artillery bombardment was used for the first time to terrorising effect. The U.S. Civil War was not yet mechanized total warfare the way that World War One became, but it was a fair preview of what was coming in the twentieth century.

    Education Minister Gove’s reaction to criticism of the Great War as its centenary approaches and commemorative events are planned shows how much more dangerous politicians are than soldiers. A man who disregards the incompetence of the war’s execution is not a patriot, he does not properly honor the memory of the fallen, and he’s not qualified to be in charge of educating the young about it.