In recent years, China’s global image has fallen drastically in many parts of the globe, sometimes to its lowest level in decades.

In Southeast Asia, where China could have used its growing dominance of trade integration to bolster its image, a comprehensive annual survey released in early 2022 by the Yusof Ishak Institute in Singapore found that overwhelming majorities of Southeast Asians are “worried about (China’s) growing regional political and strategic influence.”

Another poll conducted by Sinophone Borderlands of people in 13 European countries, including multiple Central and East European states, found that people in 10 of the 13 now had much more negative views of China than positive views. China’s image in Central and Eastern Europe is only likely to deteriorate further because of its support for Russia in the Ukraine war, which has led to rising anti-Russia sentiment in the region.