In the final weeks of campaigning, Argentine President-elect Javier Milei published a fabricated image depicting his Peronist rival Sergio Massa as an old-fashioned communist in military garb, his hand raised aloft in salute.

The apparently AI-generated image drew some 3 million views when Milei posted it on a social media account, highlighting how the rival campaign teams used artificial intelligence technology to catch voters' attention in a bid to sway the race.

"There were troubling signs of AI use" in the election, said Darrell West, a senior fellow at the Center for Technology Innovation at the Washington-based Brookings Institution.