China may bring forward its midcentury goal of building a “world-class military,” Japan said in its annual defense white paper released Friday, as the international community enters “a new era of crisis” and faces its greatest test since World War II.

The white paper, which was shared with the Cabinet at a meeting the same day, describes China as Japan’s “greatest strategic challenge,” reiterating phrasing found in its new National Security Strategy, which was updated last December.

The report is the first white paper since the release of the NSS and two other key documents that laid the foundation for the country’s defense and security policies for years to come.