Indonesia’s new criminal code outlawing sex outside marriage and potentially curbing free speech will apply to citizens and foreigners in the country, spurring uncertainty among tourists and expatriates.

Critics have decried that the new laws infringe on people’s personal lives and attempts to prevent criticism of the government, a setback for the country’s democracy that could mar its investment climate. The law could also deter foreign travel, which may undermine economic recovery in tourism-reliant places like Bali that are just rebounding since the pandemic.

The country has sought to assure foreigners that their privacy would be upheld and they shouldn’t worry about being prosecuted unless their family members file a complaint. "So, if people from Australia want to go on a holiday in Bali, and they want to stay in the same room whatsoever, that is their personal matter,” Law and Human Rights Minister Yasonna Laoly said on Wednesday.