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From Boris Johnson to Emmanuel Macron, Europe’s leaders are increasingly going after anti-vaxxers as the battle against the fast-spreading omicron variant deepens the region’s pandemic fatigue.

Amid a seemingly unstoppable surge in infections, officials are focusing restrictions on unvaccinated people rather than resorting to widespread clampdowns. The strong overall uptake in inoculations has emboldened leaders to go more aggressively after the holdouts, prodding them to roll up their sleeves.

French President Macron took the rhetoric to a new level this week when he said his government’s strategy was to “piss off” those who have refused shots. In the U.K., Johnson accused anti-vaxxers of spreading “nonsense.” German Chancellor Olaf Scholz, who supports making shots compulsory, has labeled the anti-vax movement “a tiny minority of reckless extremists.”

With the pandemic entering its third year and about 70% of Europe fully vaccinated, the leaders are betting they have popular support for this approach.

Across the continent, the policy of coercion is becoming the order of the day, with many governments trying to make life difficult for those refusing a vaccine and brushing aside concerns about civic freedoms.

Macron, who faces a difficult re-election campaign this spring, is banking on support among the millions who are desperate to leave the pandemic behind. Some 77% of the population is fully vaccinated, according to government figures, putting him squarely on the side of the majority.

On Friday, he stood by his remarks, saying it “was my responsibility to ring the alarm.”

France is toughening restrictions on those without inoculations, looking to put in place a vaccine pass to access bars and restaurants, or even travel by train.

Neighboring Italy on Wednesday made shots compulsory for people over 50, though the fine of €100 ($113) for non-compliance has been kept deliberately low.

In Austria, the unvaccinated are barred from most areas of life, including nonessential shopping, hotels and restaurants, although enforcement is spotty. The country also wants to make vaccines mandatory for everyone from next month, though implementation may be delayed due to issues with the electronic vaccine register.

Germany, Europe’s biggest economy, is already in what some officials have termed a “lockdown of the unvaccinated,” with limits on access to theaters and other leisure activities.

On Friday, authorities created an even bigger hurdle, requiring negative tests at restaurants and nonessential stores for fully vaccinated people. Only those who’ve had boosters get no-hassle access.

“Anyone who hasn’t been immunized is endangering themselves,” Scholz said.

The controversy over such measures found a new global flashpoint this week when world tennis No. 1 Novak Djokovic was denied entry to Australia for the Australian Open. That followed anger over a decision to grant the Serbian player an exemption to play without proof of vaccination.

European governments — unable to halt, or even slow, the spread of infections — are zeroing in on the unvaccinated as part of efforts to protect their health services from being swamped.

While vaccines don’t completely stop transmission, research suggests they reduce the chance of severe symptoms from omicron. That should mean less pressure on hospitals, many of which are already stretched, in part because of staff shortages due to illness.

Data in the U.K. show a far higher hospitalization rate among those who haven’t had a vaccine.

While Johnson has said he favors a voluntary approach to vaccinations, this week his frustration with anti-vaxxers boiled over.

“I want to say to the anti-vaxx campaigners, the people who are putting this mumbo jumbo on social media, they are completely wrong,” he said. Given the “tragedy” going on, “it’s time that I and government call them out on what they’re doing.”

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