Emi Tanaka insists she is no anti-vaxxer. The Tokyoite has always followed the guidelines diligently when it comes to recommended jabs for her 10-year-old son, saying any vaccine that protects “provides peace of mind.”

When it comes to the subject of vaccinating against COVID-19, however, she feels less at ease.

Her concerns center around safety, particularly in the longer term. Unlike established vaccines, including those for children that are developed and tested over a decade or more, the coronavirus shots hit the market in a matter of months, making long-term side effects impossible to assess, she says.