In the 10 years since the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami of March 11, 2011, scientists have sought answers to a variety of questions relating to the deadly tsunami that began tearing through coastal communities just 15 minutes after the quake.

Researchers have probed how a tsunami gathers height as it nears a shoreline and how this affects the damage it can cause. They’ve also begun to assess technologies for the early detection of tsunamis and improving tsunami observing systems across Japan.

“The speed of a tsunami offshore is the same as a jet airplane and its speed inland similar to Usain Bolt,” says Nobuhito Mori, a professor in the Coastal Disaster Research section of the Disaster Prevention Research Institute at Kyoto University.