Pregnant female convicts will in the future give birth without having to wear handcuffs, after the father of a baby born to an inmate in Kasamatsu prison, Gifu Prefecture, lobbied against the rule.

Under the Act on Penal Detention Facilities and Treatment of Inmates and Detainees, inmates must be handcuffed while being escorted in and out of prison and whenever they are outside prison facilities.

There are no exceptions when giving birth in a hospital, although the wardens present can decide to uncuff the prisoner. In most cases, female prisoners have given birth with at least one handcuff on.