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The “flying geese” theory of development has long served as the basis of policy formulation and analysis of post-World War II economic relations between industrialized nations and developing countries. The fundamental idea is that both sides benefit from a vertical division of labor across national borders.

When a country’s economic development reaches a certain level and people’s income rises, such production costs as labor and land get pushed up, rendering the manufacture and provision of low-value-added goods and services unprofitable.

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