J-pop in 2017 felt more fragmented than ever, but the year’s biggest songs tell the story of the past 12 months quite well. From YouTube rappers to television heartthrobs, here are four tunes that sum it all up:

No single song was bigger in 2017 than the surprise hit “Uchiage Hanabi.” Musically, it treads well-worn territory, being a ballad stuffed to the brim with violin swoops and an upward build — which is fitting as it served as the theme to the animated film “Fireworks, Should We See It From the Side or the Bottom?” But the song also brought two musicians who’d made their names online to the attention of the mainstream, demonstrating the power digital platforms now have in the Japanese market.

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