WRITING IN LIGHT: The Silent Scenario and the Japanese Pure Film Movement, by Joanne Bernardi. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 2001, 355 pp., 100 illustrations. $39.95 (cloth); $19.95 (paperback)

Film evolved differently in different cultures. In the West the cinema was perceived as a new form of photography and could thus develop relatively free of the precedents of prior dramaturgy. In the East, however, particularly in Japan, the first Asian country to create a film industry, cinema was seen as a new form of drama.

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