It’s hard to fault E. Herbert Norman’s analysis of Japan. He refers to “divide-and-rule tactics used to hobble opposition parties, collaboration with big business, politicization of the civil service, and the active creation of hegemonic political ideas designed to cast government practices as in the national interest rather than the public or individual interest.” He highlights “the growth and ramifications of the bureaucracy . . . the pusillanimity of parties and Diet; the mushrooming of small-scale industries; the adaptation to Japanese needs of Western technology.”
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