The pursuit of bilingualism can be something akin to the quest for the Holy Grail for parents living in Japan. It’s also near-universal, affecting expatriates here for an extended period, multilingual families where the parents come from different cultural backgrounds, or Japanese nationals eager to start their child on learning a new language. One thing that is easy to overlook, though, is the importance of nurturing identity on this quest.
Carol Inugai is the language and learning manager for the International Baccalaureate Organization. She worked for more than 25 years as an educator in Japan before taking on her current role at the organization. She is very well informed on the subject of language acquisition, but it’s her role as mother to a bilingual child that reinforces the research on a personal level.
“Language plays an intricate role in the development of a child’s identity as he or she navigates the complexities of various group memberships,” Inugai tells The Japan Times. “All multicultural children must eventually reconcile how to create an integrated identity by harmonizing their ‘other’ identities within the established group.”
While many parents may see formalized language study as the key to biculturalism, it is sometimes necessary to put it aside when issues of identity arise.
Take one typical case in Japan: Peter, Maki and their son, Leo. (For privacy, the family has requested we not print their real names.) Peter is British and Maki is Japanese. Both parents, determined to ensure Leo’s bilingual development, meticulously researched their linguistic options while Maki was pregnant and formulated a strategy many bicultural families employ: Peter, whose Japanese was limited, would speak to Leo only in English and support his son’s English literacy skills, while Maki (although she was fluent in English) would speak to Leo only in Japanese.
Taking his role as minority-language parent seriously, Maki says Peter created engaging home lessons, stocked up on books, music and movies, and worked hard to establish an early, consistent routine of English study built around a need for communication between father and son.
Things went well throughout elementary school and Leo was praised for his language development — not just at school, but also when he visited the extended family in England. He read books in both languages and was a happy, energetic boy. Peter and Maki heaped praise on their son, and congratulated themselves as well.
Then adolescence arrived. Leo lost his motivation to study English. He began to answer his father in Japanese. When repeatedly confronted on this issue, he retreated into silence and negotiated essentials only with his mother. Everything else seemed to be going well: he spent time with classmates online and at school, especially those who shared his interests in soccer and photography. School reports, too, indicated firm academic achievement and social adjustment with his peers. But Leo refused to study or speak English throughout middle school and into high school.
What had gone wrong with the plan for bilingualism? Peter was angry and hurt by his son’s actions and Maki says she became distraught. While their reactions are understandable, Leo’s case illustrates exactly how planning for language acquisition must include consideration of identity development and socialization.
Inugai cautions that identity cannot be cajoled or drilled like language study can, and that reconciliation “can be particularly difficult in Japanese society, with its emphasis on inclusion.” She believes Leo’s Japanese identity needed to be affirmed before he could accept English language study.
“Unfortunately, Leo had been the victim of mild bullying at school for his English ability, and he naturally wanted to align himself more firmly within the group of his Japanese classmates,” Inugai says. “Because his parents resisted his need to assert a Japanese identity, Leo retreated even more deeply into hostility against English.”
Identity can be positively affirmed by both parents and educators. Adam Clark works as a counselor at Yokohama International School and is the father of two bilingual children. He says that while the needs of children struggling with identity issues will change over time, one consistent goal is to support these children as they develop the ability to move comfortably across cultural boundaries.
“As parents we can do a lot for our children by providing them with meaningful experiences deep within the various cultures of their lives,” Clark says. “Consistent time spent within specific cultural settings can help children master the skills needed to move effectively within cultures and also help them to integrate the requirements of that culture into a coherent view of themselves. Specific cultural settings need not be ‘cultural events’. Sports programs, the arts or really any area of interest that the child has can be a great resource.”
Mike Bostwick, director of English immersion at Katoh Gakuen in the city of Numazu, Shizuoka Prefecture, believes teachers play an important role in affirming identity.
“Increasing numbers of children are becoming transnational, with the ability to use multiple languages and identities that transcend traditional ideas of belonging,” he says. “Our role as educators is to assist and support children in developing their bilingual and multicultural abilities as they become transnational citizens — full members of their own country and of the international community. Ultimately, we feel these are ‘gifts’ that should be available to all children.”
The bicultural community is quite creative when it comes to bestowing such gifts on its children. Anecdotes I heard in the researching of this topic included a father in Fujisawa who takes his boys home to England every summer to attend the same local school he attended as a child — emphasizing socialization rather than formal language study. One Fukuoka mother sends her children to an international school, but their music studies are within the local community and the family joined a local church. Parents in Yokohama decided to home-school their daughter in English while she attended Japanese school part-time. However, this changed when the daughter requested she attend a Japanese junior high school full time “like everyone else.” In return, the daughter promised her parents she would study for the English proficiency exams to create the possibility for further tertiary level study in English.
While families and educators pursue the grail of language acquisition, they must be prepared — and patient — as children or students navigate the individual quest of incorporating different cultures into a unified multicultural identity. It may mean allowing one language to temporarily “drop” — but it doesn’t mean your child will never develop fluent language skills.
Citing the work of professor Jim Cummins and other noted researchers, Inugai believes that “language is paramount for children to become socialized and develop a sense of belonging within cultural settings. At a certain stage in acquisition, language becomes a part of identity, and identity should be allowed to emerge according to the child.”
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IN FIVE EASY PIECES WITH TAKE 5