Ordinary Chinese citizens have expressed concerns that the Communist Party, which marked the 100th anniversary of its founding on Thursday, has ruined the image of the nation and hindered personal relationships with Japanese people.

"China is not equal to the Communist Party," said Zhang Yong, a 45-year-old architect. "I hope more Japanese will visit China and know more about what we are now, after travel restrictions in the wake of the coronavirus pandemic ease."

But some experts say a bad impression of China among Japanese citizens has not necessarily been brought about by the Communist Party, adding the crux of the matter is their fundamentally biased perception of the fast-growing Asian country.