Water supply and sewage administration in Japan was consolidated in April under the jurisdiction of the infrastructure ministry, in a shift from the previous arrangement in which the health ministry oversaw the maintenance and management of water supply.

The infrastructure ministry aims to advance integrated initiatives covering both water supply and sewage systems in addressing aging infrastructure and enhancing disaster response capabilities. The ministry will also encourage local governments responsible for these systems to improve operational efficiency by fostering collaborations with the private sector.

The service life of water supply infrastructure typically spans 40 years, while sewage systems normally last 50 years. As these systems age, the need for pipeline renewal is expected to rise. Concurrently, declines in local populations have meant reduced revenue from usage fees, prompting many local governments to raise charges to make up for funding shortfalls.