A year after Russia invaded Ukraine, the war has spurred a global effort to produce more missiles, tanks, artillery shells and other munitions. And few countries have moved as quickly as South Korea to increase output.

Last year, South Korea’s arms exports rose 140% to a record $17.3 billion, including deals worth $12.4 billion to sell ​tanks, ​howitzers, ​fighter jets and multiple rocket launchers to Poland, one of Ukraine’s closest allies.

But as South Korea expands weapons sales globally, it has refused to send lethal assistance to Ukraine itself. Instead, it has focused on filling the world’s rearmament gap while resisting any direct role in arming Ukraine, imposing strict export control rules on all its sales.