Ever since the start of Russian President Vladimir Putin’s invasion of Ukraine, China has blamed NATO for antagonizing Russia and accused the U.S. of seeking to set up a similar alliance in the Asia-Pacific. The presence of four leaders from the region in Spain this week will only make Beijing more paranoid.

For the first time, the leaders of Japan, South Korea, Australia and New Zealand are all attending a summit of the 30-member NATO. At the meeting, which started Tuesday in Madrid, the alliance is set to label China a “systemic challenge” in new policy guidelines for the coming decade, reflecting shifts in the geopolitical landscape as Chinese President Xi Jinping increasingly joins hands with Putin in opposition to the world’s democracies.

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