A South Korean government-run think tank has issued a rare call for Seoul to consider building its own nuclear weapons following the inking of a landmark treaty between North Korea and Russia that could see Moscow supply Pyongyang with advanced weapons technology.

The call, made in a report released earlier this week by the Institute for National Security Strategy (INSS), came on the heels of the stunning agreement announced Wednesday between Russian President Vladimir Putin and North Korean leader Kim Jong Un, which includes pledges of mutual defense and military assistance.

“While continuing to strengthen South Korea-U.S. ‘extended deterrence,’ a government level-review and strategic review of various alternatives, including deployment of tactical nuclear weapons, NATO-style nuclear sharing, nuclear self-armament and the establishment of potential nuclear capabilities, needs to take place, as does public debate over these options,” the INSS report said.