Stung by China’s close ties with Russian President Vladimir Putin and its repression at home, European nations are putting new limits on Chinese exports and investments in a tack that’s more in line with a strategy championed by Washington.

Countries such as Germany and Italy are following the Netherlands’ example and studying export and investment controls adopted by the U.S., according to public statements and numerous people familiar with leaders’ thinking. The main driver is China’s continued alliance with Russia despite the invasion of Ukraine, but also its perceived aggression overseas and against its own people.

The change amounts to a major shift for a continent that previously bridled at the U.S. push to unwind economic ties with China. While important differences remain, it reflects a growing frustration — and sense of vulnerability — toward the leaders of the world’s second biggest economy as the conflict in Ukraine rages on.