Japan may face a shortage of more than 11 million workers by 2040, a study has found, underscoring the economic challenges the nation faces as its population ages rapidly.

The working age population is expected to rapidly decline from 2027, according to the study by independent think tank Recruit Works Institute, published Tuesday. The worker supply is expected to shrink by about 12% in 2040 from 2022, even as labor demand remains steady, the report said.

Prime Minister Fumio Kishida has made reversing Japan’s declining birthrate a priority for his government, as he warns of societal collapse as the number of babies born hits a new low. He has also pledged about ¥1 trillion ($7.6 billion) to training workers for more high-skilled jobs in the next five years.