Earlier this month, the Osaka District Court ruled that it was not against the Constitution to ban same-sex marriage — a stark contrast to last year’s ruling by the Sapporo District Court, which declared that the government's failure to recognize same-sex marriage is unconstitutional.

The plaintiffs in the Osaka case are planning to appeal to a higher court on Thursday.

For the plaintiffs — Machi Sakata and her American partner, Theresa Stieger, who are legally married in the U.S. — the latest ruling will affect not only them but also the baby they are expecting in August. Under current law, Sakata won’t be able to have parental authority over the child because Stieger is the biological mother. The child won’t be able to have dual citizenship, either — only American citizenship like Stieger.