While swappable batteries are slow-burners in the electric car market, they have been a quick hit for e-scooters and e-bikes, making it easier and cheaper for rental companies to keep the small vehicles available on city streets.

But the fast-growing micromobility industry faces a bottleneck as companies, reluctant to relinquish their own tech secret sauce, resist widespread standardization of batteries, a development that could turbocharge efficiency.

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