In a shift from tit-for-tat tariffs and strong-arm tactics to tech restrictions and investment curbs, U.S. policy toward China has become more targeted under President Joe Biden — though still hard-line.

Despite differences between Democrats and Republicans, analysts expect Washington's approach to Beijing will only become tougher, whether Biden or former President Donald Trump wins another White House term.

"I think the direction of pressure in Washington is absolutely in one direction, which is more hawkishness," said Joshua Meltzer, senior fellow at Brookings Institution.