Japan and Australia have been stepping up security cooperation in recent years, viewing each other as having the ability to take join actions in the event of a contingency.

In October, the nations issued a joint declaration on security cooperation pledging to consider collaborative responses to emergency situations, reflecting shared concerns over China's thinly veiled threat to change the status quo unilaterally by force in the Indo-Pacific.

In their previous joint declaration, adopted about 15 years ago, there was no language signaling their wariness about the threat of China. Australia's perception of China has since changed clearly, however, while Japan wants to strengthen its "quasi-alliance" relationship with Australia further to deal with China-related risks in the region.