China, which has been walking a path of reform and opening up since 1978, achieved high economic growth in the 2000s and played a role as the driving force of the global economy. But for democratic countries, China under Xi Jinping’s administration appears to have become a troublemaker in the global community.

To understand what lies behind Xi’s actions, it is necessary to look back to the era when Mao Zedong was leading the country.