India looks set to end a tumultuous year on a celebratory note, marking both 75 years of independence and the start of its Group of 20 presidency.

But another milestone is looming. United Nations experts estimate that on April 14, 2023, India will officially overtake China and become the world’s most populous country.

That is not necessarily cause for celebration. China occupies approximately 9.6 million square kilometers (3.7 million square miles), compared to India’s 3.3 million square kilometers, which makes India’s population density nearly three times higher than China’s. Yet, unlike China, India struggles to feed, educate and care for its 1.4 billion people, despite its impressive growth rate over the last three decades.